Analysis of cryopreservation technology

  Cryopreservation has been successfully applied to different materials of many plants and is considered to be a safe and effective method for long-term preservation of plant germplasm resources.

  The main features of cryopreservation technology: use various treatment methods (slow cooling, dehydration of cryoprotectant, direct drying, etc.) to remove or replace the cryogenic water (free water) in the cells as much as possible, so as to avoid during the cooling/heating process. Or inhibit the formation and growth of ice crystals to achieve glassy solidification.

  However, cryopreservation is a relatively complicated process. Various dehydration treatments and drastic changes in temperature can cause fatal damage, as well as non-fatal physiological and biochemical changes, such as membrane system fluidity and permeability. Changes, changes in protein conformation and function, and decoupling of some metabolic processes. These changes can cause damage to the cell membrane system and the function of the enzyme protein and the production of free radicals. If the repair function of the cells fails to protect the cells from normal physiological functions, it will cause cell death. Therefore, in the research of cryopreservation of plant germplasm resources, in addition to recognizing the importance of preservation technology, some key factors, such as the choice of materials, the regulation of cell physiological state and its relationship with low temperature and desiccation tolerance, etc. In-depth research is needed.

  The effects of plant material and cell growth and physiological properties on cell dehydration and low temperature endurance have been reported. Generally, cells of tropical plant material are sensitive to both low temperature and dehydration. For example, tropical fruit tree banana and pineapple stem tip meristem, the vitrification method alone can not obtain the ideal cryopreservation effect, the material must be sucrose pre-culture and step dehydration methods to improve cell viability. In addition to the genotype, the physiological characteristics and growth state of the material cells also affect the cell's tolerance to low temperature and dehydration. The meristematic cells and embryogenic cells have high nuclear-to-plasma ratio, thick cytoplasm and abundant cell contents, and have strong tolerance to dehydration and low temperature, and can be used as the preferred material for cryopreservation; Other types of cultured cells can achieve better preservation by growth regulation.

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